Intelligence, biology, and human behavior are complex topics that have been studied by researchers for decades. The relationship between these topics is not always straightforward, and there are often exceptions to the general rules that researchers have identified. However, exceptions should not disqualify generalities, and understanding the broad trends can be useful in understanding human behavior.
One of the key points made in recent research is that metabolism promotes greater biological complexity, which manifests in the brain as intelligence. Altruism, humanitarianism, and empathy require intelligence, and intelligent people tend to adhere more strictly to principles and give in less readily to impulse. This means that intelligence plays a crucial role in promoting positive social behaviors and encouraging cooperation.
However, some manifestations of intelligence, such as those found in Type A personalities, reflect biological maladaptation in response to stress. Additionally, the “dark triad” personality, which defines a Machiavellian, narcissistic, and psychopathic individual with an inability to empathize and a preference for zero-sum social strategies, can be harmful to society as a whole. In the context of resource scarcity, conflict and predation offer more benefits than cooperation, which itself maximizes the utilization of an abundant resource.
In economics, cooperation facilitates a division of labor, which allows for specialization and diversified consumption with increasingly advanced technologies. Human beings, a type of “biological technology,” augment their resource utilization with technology. The greater number of births encourages the creation of more technology, which leads to more births and so on. Sexual dimorphism, a specific kind of “biological technology,” offers an alternative to unisex reproduction with extended gestation for the mother and the concentration of biological energy into the enlarged human brain.
Men and women have parallel sets of characteristics for survival and reproduction. Men and women both consume food and have comparable digestion (although women tend to have more sensitive digestion due to the liver’s burden of estrogen, as the liver regulates bile secretion.) Women have less musculature than men, which coincides with the phenomenon of “male expendability,” where a single man can impregnate a myriad of females, yet the reverse does not hold. In famine, women will outlast men, although with moderate food scarcity, men will have a greater ability to acquire resources due to their superior musculature. Food scarcity triggers war, and the elimination of other men and hoarding of food would simultaneously eliminate the number of males in the given population and draw females to the remaining males, thus facilitating a greater patriarchal social structure.
Intelligence does not determine belief, and intelligent people can be found across the political spectrum. However, intelligent individuals tend to adhere more strictly to principles and give in less readily to impulse. This means that they are less likely to change their minds based on emotional appeals or popular opinion, which can be both an advantage and a disadvantage in politics.
In conclusion, the relationship between intelligence, biology, and human behavior is complex and multifaceted. Understanding the broad trends can be useful in predicting human behavior and developing strategies for promoting positive social behaviors such as cooperation and empathy. However, it is important to remember that exceptions exist, and that individuals must be considered on a case-by-case basis.